**Modeling the olfactory bulb and its neural oscillatory processings**

Zhaoping Li and J. J. Hopfield

Biological Cybernetics, 61, 371-391 (1989)

**Abstract:** The olfactory bulb of mammals aids in the discrimination of
odors. A mathematical model based on the bulbar anatomy and electrophysiology
is described. Simulations of the highly nonlinear model produce a 35-60 Hz modulated
activity which is coherent across the bulb. The decision states for the odor
information in this system can be thought of as stable cycles, rather than point
stable states typical of simpler neuro-computing models. ANalysis shows that
a group of couple non-linear oscillators are responsible for the oscillatory
activities. The output oscillation pattern of the bulb is determined by the
odor input. The model provided a framework in which to understand the transform
between odor input and the bulbar output to olfactory cortex. There is significant
correspondence between the model behavior and observed electrophysiology.